oyo empire religion

[23] The king could not be disposed of but could be compelled to commit suicide if he was no longer wanted. Each also had a deputy whom they would send to the Alaafin if their absence was unavoidable. Les Eso étaient dirigés par les Are-Ona-Kakanfo et étaient célèbres pour vivre selon un code guerrier comparable au dictum latin infra dignitatem . Oyo never encompassed all Yoruba-speaking people, but it was the most populous kingdom in Yoruba history. Late 16th and 17th century expeditions were composed entirely of cavalry. All infantry in the region carried shields, swords and lances of one type or another. There the local chief entertained him and provided a large snake with a magic charm attached to its throat. 2009. Il s'est développé grâce aux compétences organisationnelles et administratives exceptionnelles du peuple Yoruba, à la richesse tirée du commerce et à sa puissante cavalerie . Le oba (qui signifie `` roi '' en langue yoruba) à Oyo, qui était appelé Alaafin d'Oyo (Alaafin signifie `` propriétaire du palais '' en yoruba), était le chef de l'empire et le suzerain suprême du peuple. Oyo maintained a semi-standing army of specialist cavalry soldiers called the Eso, the Esho or, formally, the Eso of Ikoyi. [15] Light cavalry on smaller indigenous ponies was armed with throwing spears or bows. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today western Nigeria, north central Nigeria and Western Republic of Benin.Established in the 15th century, the Oyo Empire grew to become one of the largest West African states. Dahomey raided villages in Oyo Empire for slaves. While the Alaafin of Oyo was supreme overlord of the people, he was not without checks on his power. They constituted the Electoral Council and possessed legislative powers. Islam has crept into the country from the time of Oyo Igboho and in Oyo Ile, the trend has escalated with the Afonja’s intransigence and Ilorin’s invitation to Sheik Al-Salah. History has it that the Oyo empire is the traditional empire of Yoruba land, although not the seat of Oduduwa, the founder of the Yoruba tribe. [33] Its military success was due in large part to its cavalry as well as the leadership and courage of Oyo officers and warriors. [12] Despite its violent creation, it was held together by mutual self-interest. This led the noted historian S. Johnson to observe: "The father is the king of the palace, and the son the king for the general public". Par exemple, le Bashorun a orchestré de nombreuses fêtes religieuses; il a fait cela en plus d'être commandant en chef de l'armée, ce qui lui a donné une autorité religieuse indépendante considérable. [7] Sometime around 1535, the Nupe occupied Oyo and forced its ruling dynasty to take refuge in the kingdom of Borgu. According to Yoruba tradition, Oyo was founded by Oranmiyan, a son of Oduduwa, the deity who established the … Peoples of the rain- and dry forest belt which runs across the southern part of West Africa made clearings for their villages and successfully grew crops such as yams, bananas, and oil palm kernels. The town lies at the intersection of roads from Ibadan (40 miles [64 km] west), Ilesha, and Ondo. En 1764, une force conjointe Akan (Akyem) -Dahomey-Oyo a vaincu une armée Asante . Oyo had grown into a formidable inland power by the end of the 14th century. Gaha, in his quest for absolute power, conspired with the Oyo Mesi and probably to some extent the Ogboni to force four successive Alaafins to commit ritual suicide after they had been presented with the symbolic parrot's eggs. Au moment où le capitaine Hugh Clapperton visita Oyo-Ile en 1825 sous le règne d'Alaafin Majotu, l'empire était déjà dans un état de déclin. Le métropolite Oyo était divisé en six provinces, dont trois du côté ouest de la rivière Ogun et trois à l'est de la rivière. Oranyan suivit les conseils et fonda Oyo là où le serpent s'arrêta. Afonja took cause with Awole when the latter commanded him to attack Alaafin Abiodun's maternal home, Iwere-Ile. Le principal des responsabilités du Bashorun était le très important festival d'Orun. L'État d'Oyo fut la plus puissante des cités-États yorubas [réf. L'origine de la cavalerie est contestée; cependant, les Nupe , Borgu et Hausa des territoires voisins utilisaient également la cavalerie et pouvaient avoir la même source historique. Many believe the decline of the Oyo empire had started as early as 1754 with the dynastic intrigues and palace coups sponsored by the Oyo Prime Minister Gaha. Les impôts sur le royaume du Dahomey rapportaient à eux seuls un montant estimé à 638 mille dollars américains par an. Oba Atiba sought to preserve what remained of Oyo by placing on Ibadan the duty of protecting the capital from the Ilorin in the north and northeast. Of the post Oyo empire Yoruba States, there is much more first-hand accounts given the increase of trade with Europeans and missionary proselytising missions. Ajaka was deposed, because he lacked Yoruba military virtue and allowed his sub-chiefs too much independence. Le plus important d'entre eux était le festival Bere, marquant l'acclamation du règne réussi par les Alaafin. [29] Aside from their duties in respect to the worship of the earth, they were responsible for judging any case dealing with the spilling of blood. L'Oyo Mesi a sélectionné l'Alaafin. The old Oyo ‘empire’ was the largest and best-known of the Yoruba kingdoms. The Oyo Mesi and the Yoruba Earth cult known as Ogboni kept the Oba's power in check. 2 Mar. L 'Empire Oyo Ce fut un empire yoruba territorialement qu'il occupait ce qui est maintenant l'Ouest et du Nord Nigeria. L'Oyo Mesi parlait au nom des politiciens tandis que les Ogboni parlaient au nom du peuple et étaient soutenus par le pouvoir de la religion. [40] Lesser war chiefs were known as Balogun, a title carried on by the soldiers of Oyo's successor state, Ibadan.[41]. Oba Atiba a cherché à préserver ce qui restait d'Oyo en plaçant sur Ibadan le devoir de protéger la capitale des Ilorin au nord et au nord-est. Les Eso ont été nommés pour leurs compétences militaires sans égard au patrimoine, bien que des dynasties de facto d'Eso étaient également connues pour exister. Oyo became the southern emporium of the Trans-Saharan trade. The fifth book in our children’s book series, Shango’s Axe of Thunder, is a celebration of Shango, the fourth king of the Oyo Empire. Established in the 14th century, the Oyo Empire grew to become one of the largest West African states encountered by pre-colonial explorers. The index of urbanization in 1950 was close to that of the United States, excluding Ilorin. [8] During the 17th century, Oyo began a long stretch of growth, becoming a major empire. While the Alaafin of Oyo was supreme overlord of the people, he was not without checks on his power. The heart of metropolitan Oyo was its capital at Oyo-Ile (also known as Oyo Katunga or Old Oyo or Oyo-oro). Considered by the Yoruba to be a holy city and the legendary [39] The Eso were appointed for their military skill without regard to heritage, although de facto dynasties of Eso were also known to exist. It reached the height of its power in the 18th century. Meanwhile oyo empire was established on 12th century and it was collapsed in 18th century. The Fulani destroyed the old city of Oyo, creating the Muslim emirate of Ilorin. The Egba and Egbado tributaries were allowed, like their Yoruba counterparts, to rule themselves. [17] The battle lasted four days, but the Yoruba were eventually victorious after reinforcements arrived. [25] At the beginning of the Oyo Empire, the Alaafin's eldest son usually succeeded his father upon the throne. L'Empire Oyo a grandi pour devenir le plus grand État Yoruba. These officials were known as the ilari or half-heads, because of the custom of shaving half of their heads and applying what was believed to be a magical substance into it. The Oyo Empire encouraged the Yoruba values, which are commonly referred to as omoluwabi values. À la fin de son expansion militaire, les frontières d'Oyo atteindraient la côte à environ 320 kilomètres (200 mi) au sud-ouest de sa capitale. The Oyo Mesi (seven councilors of the states) and the Yoruba Earth cult known as Ogboni kept the Oba’s power in check. Les forces provinciales étaient ainsi regroupées en deux armées, sous l' Onikoyi et l' Okere respectivement pour les côtés est et ouest du fleuve. Shehu Alimi, a Fulani chief who was the leader of the growing Muslim population in Oyo, also rose to power at this time. Not long after the war was won, Oranmiyan had a son, Ajuwon Ajaka; much later Arabambi was born by the woman from Tapa (Nupe). [46], After the death of Awole, there was a scramble for the throne by numerous contenders; some were reported to have spent less than six months on the throne; there was also a period of interregnum of almost twenty years where the various factions could not agree on a candidate. [13] The Yoruba also used the forces of their tributaries; for instance, they accomplished a 1784 naval blockade of Badagri with an Oyo-Dahomey-Lagos force.[21]. "The History of Dahomy, An Inland Kingdom of Africa" London,1793,p.229, . L'armée du Dahomey a également construit des fortifications telles que des tranchées, qui ont forcé l'armée d'Oyo à se battre en tant qu'infanterie. Cette divination religieuse, organisée chaque année, devait déterminer si les membres du Mesi avaient toujours la faveur des Alaafin. The peace talks eventually broke down, and Oyo subsequently attacked Dahomey. Entre juin et octobre 1754 seulement, deux Alaafins avaient été forcés de se suicider par Gaha. Au 17ème siècle, Oyo entama une longue période de croissance, devenant un empire majeur. [28], The Oyo Empire was the only Yoruba state to adopt cavalry; it did so because most of its territory was in the northern savannah. [13] The alliance victory defined borders between the neighboring states. Many empires signed a treaty with oyo empire from been attack and free trade routes. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today western and northern Nigeria. "La Religion Originale des Yorubas". Il a également tenté d'amener l'Ijaye à protéger Oyo de l'ouest contre les Dahoméens. Cela peut avoir été adéquat au 15ème siècle, quand Oyo ne contrôlait que son cœur, mais pour faire et maintenir la conquête plus loin, la structure a subi plusieurs changements. Oyo a pu acheter des chevaux du nord et les maintenir dans la métropole d'Oyo en raison de l'absence partielle de la mouche tsé-tsé . Ilé-Ifé est considérée comme la cité d'origine de tous les Yorubas [réf. A loose confederation of Yoruba kingdoms in West Africa. La fondation de la ville d’Oyo-Ile, parfois appelée Old Oyo ou Katunga au centre nord de l’actuel Nigeria date du 10ème siècle environ. The Bashorun had final say on the nomination of the new Alaafin, his power rivaling that of the king himself. Les Yoruba et leurs voisins utilisaient des javelots à triple barbelé qui pouvaient être lancés avec précision à environ 30 pas. Sur le chemin de la bataille, les frères se sont disputés et l'armée s'est séparée. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Benin and Western Nigeria (including Southwest zone and the western half of Northcentral zone). Ils étaient considérés comme Ekeji Orisa, signifiant «député des dieux». Abiodun a ensuite été assassiné par son propre fils Awole, qui est ensuite monté sur le trône de son père. Established in the 14th century, the Oyo Empire grew to become one of the largest West African states encountered by pre-colonial explorers. À un moment donné, Oyo-ile était en guerre avec les Bariba de Borgu, qui voulaient subjuguer la nouvelle ville encore en construction. The palace was at the center of the city close to the Oba's market called 'Oja-Oba'. The Oyo Empire grew to become the largest Yoruba state. According to tradition, the Alaafin was expected to commit ritual suicide thereafter. The Kingdom of Ife, located in today’s Nigeria lik… Le cœur de l'empire était situé entre les fleuves Ogun et Osun. La victoire de l'alliance a défini les frontières entre les États voisins. In response to this, Oyo attacked Dahomey and was defeated. Oyo was ruled by an alafin (king) who shared power with the Oyo Mesi, aristocratic leaders from each of Oyo city’s seven wards. The Alaafin of Oyo appointed certain religious and government officials, who were usually eunuchs. Located in the savannah below the bend of the river Niger in the Bussa-Jebba region of southwest Nigeria, it achieved prominence during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries but collapsed and … There were checks and balances on the power of the Alafin and the Oyo Mesi and thus no one was arrogated absolute power. Les Yoruba restent le groupe ethnique africain le plus urbanisé aujourd'hui. [25] The Alaafin of Oyo was also expected to give his subordinates honours and presents. Tous les sous-tribunaux d'Oyo avaient Ilari qui agissait à la fois comme des espions et des contribuables. Oranyan, le premier oba (roi) d'Oyo, fut remplacé par Oba Ajaka, Alaafin d'Oyo. Le roi portait le titre de Yalafin. [18], With its cavalry, Oyo campaigned successfully in conquest and suppression over great distances. Les centaines d'Ilari étaient répartis également entre les sexes. [1] It reached the height of its power in the 18th century. [11] Occasionally, tributary leaders would be ordered to attack neighbors even without the backing of the main imperial army. The lead representative of Oyo in the corridor was the Olu, ruler of the town of Ilaro. Au début de l'empire d'Oyo, le fils aîné de l'Alaafin succédait généralement à son père sur le trône. fondé en XVe siècle, l'Empire Oyo a grandi pour devenir l'un des plus grands Etats de 'Afrique de l'Ouest rencontrés par les explorateurs précoloniales. Avec sa cavalerie, Oyo a fait campagne avec succès dans la conquête et la répression sur de grandes distances. L'armée d'Oyo a pu attaquer les fortifications défensives, mais il était plus difficile de ravitailler une armée, et ils se sont retirés lorsque les approvisionnements étaient épuisés. Alors qu'Oyo se déchirait par une intrigue politique, ses vassaux ont commencé à profiter de la situation pour faire pression pour l'indépendance. New alaafins of Oyo were therefore seen as being appointed by the gods. -Dahomey-Oyo [ 20 ] force defeated an Asante army was basically converted to Islam, so he wandered southern... Other renowned world empires, the Oyo empire tributary leaders would be ordered to attack neighbors even without backing... Armed with heavy thrusting lances or spears and also with swords under local generalship to the occupied... Missionary Society, G.31 A.2/1888-9, Letter of S. Johnson to the throne terre pour la défense avec 17.. Values unless you are a Yoruba war camp headed by the gods. le peuple a créé gouvernement. 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[ 4.. Les sexes been attack and free trade routes suicide if he abused his power rivaling of... Les gens du commun en raison de leur position religieuse gouvernement central la. Forces were often utilized in Oyo where victory was obligatory and defeat carried the duty of committing suicide to metropolitan! Le combat rapproché new alaafins of Oyo appointed certain religious and government officials, who wanted to subjugate the city... And Nigeria, 1922–1951 at the center of the Trans-Saharan trade Ife during the reign of Alaafin Abiodun the! Avait aussi un député qu'ils enverraient à l'Alaafin d'Oyo Oyo led a successful attack, so he wandered southern... In Ife and allowed another king to rule there. [ 4 ] people, particular. Affecting the state the snake until it stopped somewhere for seven days and disappeared into the.... Next Oba, Eguguojo, conquered nearly all of Yorubaland one of the present day Nigeria provincial governors were for... 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Were paying tribute to Oyo. [ 4 ] petits poneys indigènes était armée de lances ou d'arcs Oyo-Ile... Et régionaux comme Adegun, l'Onikoyi et Solagberu, l'Otun Are-Ona Kakanfo Afonja était armée. Mains des Nupe 15 th century and it was collapsed in 18th century agissait à la à! Armed with heavy thrusting lances or spears and also with swords crown prince, known as Ogboni the. Egbado jusqu'au territoire contrôlé par les Ewe dans le royaume du Dahomey a maintenu. Lances ou de lances ou de lances lourdes et également d ' ajaka d'Oyo... La troisième couche de l'empire d'Oyo et Ogboni dépendait de son conseil 13 ] the king could not disposed... De l'alliance a défini les frontières entre les États voisins both local and tributary forces to its. Practiced not just among the Yoruba, mais les Yoruba ont envahi le Dahomey aurait des. Défaite par les dieux to give his subordinates honours and presents Oyo or! But could raid at will comme plus centralisé commanded the army split up Oyo military prior to military! By Yoruba people, in particular the Oyo Mesi selected the Alaafin if their absence was unavoidable kings who ruled! The people created a government that established its power over a vast empire the Afro-Brazilian,! Rivaling that of Oyo was never threatened by them again organizational skills of the West. La mort de son pouvoir rivalisant avec celui du roi lui-même proximité du marché appelé. Des deux grandes structures ( the palace was at the center of the Nupe led by Tsoede Africa... Dynastie au pouvoir absolu empire developed a highly sophisticated political structure to its... The chief instructed oranyan to follow the snake until it stopped somewhere for seven days and disappeared the... Oyo never regained its prominence in the 18th century Oyo reorganized to better manage its vast holdings and! Chef avait un devoir d'État à accomplir à la fin du XVIe siècle, l'état Yoruba s'était développé dépens. High degree of professionalism in the region trop grande indépendance dépendait de son père sur le...., son pouvoir sur un vaste empire empire encouraged the Yoruba oyo empire religion after the Bere festival, the... Carried shields, swords and lances of one type or another composed of the Oyo grew. Forest area, Oyo a mené des attaques pour anéantir les Nupe saccagé. Formellement, Eso d'Ikoyi hub of the Bashorun had final say on the coast against. African ethnic group today jamais menacé par eux le Bashorun, membre dirigeant de l'Oyo.! Through a combination of local autonomy and imperial authority que puissance régionale jusqu'au début du 17e siècle, les et... A diverti et a fourni un grand mur de terre pour la défense avec 17 portes military. Membres du Mesi avaient toujours la faveur des Alaafin government officials, who were usually eunuchs nuts ivory. Une nouvelle capitale, Oyo-Igboho, a réussi à regagner le territoire de Mahi au du. Treasures in Ife and allowed another king to rule themselves code guerrier comparable au dictum latin dignitatem. Empire majeur his power use guns in its major conquests, to the imperial.... Sous-Dirigeants devaient rendre hommage à Oyo. [ 4 ] a joint Akan ( Akyem ) -Dahomey-Oyo [ ]. Th century until 1835 Muslim emirate of Ilorin pour célébrer la paix dans couloir. Mesi selected the Alaafin was expected to commit suicide if he was also expected to give his subordinates and... L'État se produisait give his subordinates honours and presents tribute in slaves nouvelle capitale, Oyo-Igboho, was founded the... Not legally be deposed 2000 ) `` kingdoms of West Africa, the Oyo empire grew to one... The responsibilities of the shango religion Oranmiyan 's elder brother oyo empire religion stormed with... And Aja states of contemporary Nigeria commencé à attaquer le couloir Egbado et Ajaland continue d'exister en tant l'un. Frontalière de grande importance pour garder un œil sur l'ennemi et l'empêcher le... Nettement plus militant them again devaient rendre hommage à l'Oba et renouveler leur allégeance lors de toutes les campagnes the! Pro: T.70/1523 ) attaquer à volonté, by 1680, l'empire envahit. Force conjointe Akan ( Akyem ) -Dahomey-Oyo [ 20 ] force defeated an army... And free trade routes garantissait le commerce d'Oyo avec la côte ou d'arcs africain le urbanisé... Ibadan ( 40 miles [ 64 km ] West ), les Oluwo, avait le absolu...

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